Comments and Replies ... and Who We Are

TANATA is devoted to discussing the paradoxes and the mysteries of life, among which is the paradox of the coexistence of good and evil. “God is love,” John tells us. Evil exists, we would suggest, not because God is detached or unconcerned, but because free will exists which is required for true, unforced love to exist. Still, it is painfully hard to reconcile this paradox. We believe that all evil one day will be judged and destroyed, until then we must pray.

DANIEL 7:13-14

13 “I was watching in the night visions, and behold, One like the Son of Man, coming with the clouds of heaven! He came to the Ancient of Days, and they brought Him near before Him.

14 Then to Him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom the one which shall not be destroyed.


7 Behold, He is coming with clouds, and every eye will see Him, even they who pierced Him. And all the tribes of the earth will mourn because of Him. Even so, Amen.

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Kublai Khan, Prester John, Ethiopia and Eden

Prester John is the name given to a mythical medieval Christian priest-king of a vast empire in Central Asia, and later in Ethiopia. His first appearance in historical documents is in the Chronicle of Otto of Fresingen, who heard word of a powerful Christian sovereign reigning in the East in 1145 from a Syrian bishop who had arrived at the Papal Court in Viterbo.

In 1177, Pope Alexander III wrote a letter to “Presbyter Iohannes,” hoping that he might become an ally of the European princes fighting to stop the Muslim advance in Mediterranean areas. At that time it was believed that Prester John was sovereign of an Asian country near India. During the Fifth Crusade, at the beginning of the 13th century, information about Ethiopia was collected by Crusaders in Egypt, and therefore the Christian sovereigns of Nubia and Ethiopia, always fighting to defend their faith, became known in Europe.

It was rather obvious development that the Indian “Prester John” of former legend should become identified with the Emperor of Ethiopia. India and Ethiopia were often confused; until the Renaissance, it was believed that only a narrow strait (“el cavo de Diab,” according to Fra Mauro, cartographer of Venice) separated Ethiopia from the Indian sub-continent. As a result, in his Mirabilia descripta, written in 1329, the Dominican friar Jourdain Catalani describes the sovereign of Christian Ethiopia as “Prester John.” Thereafter the kingdom of Prester John was located in Africa and his legend was enriched, sometimes by data later made known about Ethiopia. For instance, Prester John was believed to have the power of cutting off the flow of the Nile towards Egypt (an ancient Ethiopian tradition).

In documents and legends of the 15th century, Prester John appears with the personal name of “At Senab,” a corruption of the Arabic “Abd as-Salib”: this is a local Egyptian translation of the Ethiopic Gäbrä-Mäsqäl, “Servant of the Cross,” the official royal name of some Ethiopian Emperors and, in particular, of the Emperor ‘Amda-Seyon I (1314-1344 A.D.).

The legends inspired the great Italian poets of the 16th century: Aristo, in his poem Orlando Furioso, described the travels of Astolfo, Knight of the Court of Emperor Charles the Great, to Ethiopia to visit and liberate the Emperor “Senapo”; and Tasso in his Gerusalemme Liberata celebrated the heroism and virtue of Clorinda, daughter of the same Emperor “Senapo” of Ethiopia.

— end —

Read Bewitched In Asmara? a recent posting, and do so in view of the intriguing link between Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan and Prester John, and, the link between Prester John, Ethiopia (formerly Abyssinia) and the apostle or evangelist the Presbyter John of the second century, whom we believe is a mythical figure meant to obscure John Mark, whom we say is the author of the gospels of Mark and John, as well as the Johannine epistles and the book of Revelation. And perhaps the book of Hebrews.

We offer the following commentary on the poem Kubla Khan — a favorite of ours since childhood — from and a link to a sterling website, “Tenser, Said the Tensor” for more on the intriguing apparent connection (though unconscious on Coleridge’s part) between Kubla Khan, Prester John, Abyssinia, Mount Amara, Abora, Asmara and Eden.


Kubla Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, was a Mongolian conqueror who stretched his empire from European Russia to the eastern shores of China in the thirteenth century. His exploits, like those of his grandfather and those of the Mohammedan Timur in the next century, made a deep impression on the imagination of Western Europe. Compilers of travellers’s tales, like Hakluyt and Purchas, caught up eagerly whatever they could find, history or legend, concerning the extent of his domain, the methods of his government, or the splendors of his court. The passage in “Purchas his Pilgrimage” to which Coleridge refers is as follows:

“In Xamdu did Cublai Can build a stately Palace, encompassing sixteene miles of plaine ground with a wall, wherein are fertile Meddowes, pleasant Springs, delightfull Streames, and all sorts of beasts of chase and game, and in the middest thereof a sumptuous house of pleasure” (quoted in the Notes of the Globe edition).

Coleridge’s poem, however, contains suggestions and reminiscences from another part of Purchas’s book, and probably from other books as well. “It reads like an arras of reminiscences from several accounts of natural or enchanted parks, and from various descriptions of that elusive and danger-fraught garden which mystic geographers have studied to locate from Florida to Cathay” (Cooper).

The earthly paradise, which was closed to man indeed, but not destroyed, when Adam and Eve were driven from its gates, has exercised the imagination of the Christian world from the early Middle Ages. Lactantius described it in the fourth century; the author of the “Phoenix,” probably in the eighth century, translated Lactantius’ Latin into Anglo-Saxon verse; Sir John Mandeville, in the fourteenth century, though he did not reach it himself because he “was not worthy,” gives an account of it from what he has “heard say of wise Men beyond;” Milton described it enchantingly in “Paradise Lost;” Dr. Johnson used a modification of it in “Rasselas;” and William Morris in our own time made it the framework for a delightful series of world-old tales. The idea, indeed, is not peculiar to Christianity, but is probably to be found in every civilization. Christian Europe has naturally located it in the East; and since the Crusades, which brought Western Europe more in contact with the East, various eastern legends have been attached to or confounded with the original notion. One of these is the Abyssinian legend of the hill Amara (cf. l. 41, where Coleridge’s “Mount Abora” seems to stand for Purchas’s Amara). Amara in Purchas’s account is a hill in a great plain in Ethiopia, used as a prison for the sons of Abyssinian kings. Its level top, twenty leagues in circuit and surrounded by a high wall, is a garden of delight. “Heauen and Earth, Nature and Industrie, have all been corriuals to it, all presenting their best presents, to make it of this so louely presence, some taking this for the place of our Forefathers Paradise.” The sides of the hill are of overhanging rock, “bearing out like mushromes, so that it is impossible to ascend it” except by a passageway “cut out within the Rocke, not with staires, but ascending little by little,” and closed above and below with gates guarded by soldiers. “Toward the South” of the level top “is a rising hill … yeelding … a pleasant spring which passeth through all that Plaine … and making a Lake, whence issueth a River, which having from these tops espied Nilus, never leaves seeking to find him, whom he cannot leave both to seeke and to finde…. There are no Cities on the top, but palaces, standing by themselves … spacious, sumptuous, and beautifull, where the Princes of the Royall blood have their abode with their families.”

This legend looks backward to Mandeville, with whose account of the Terrestrial Paradise it has much in common, and forward to Milton, who used some of its elements in his description of Paradise in the fourth book of “Paradise Lost.” (See Professor Cooper’s article in “Modern Philology,” III., 327 ff., from which this is condensed.)

Mr. E.H. Coleridge (the poet’s grandson) has recently shown that in the winter of 1797-8 Coleridge read and made notes from a book, “Travels through … the Cherokee Country,” by the American botanist William Bartram. Chapter VII. of Bartram’s book contains an account of some natural wonders in the Cherokee country that almost certainly afforded part of the imagery of “Kubla Khan.” Bartram, says Mr. Coleridge, “speaks of waters which ‘descend by slow degrees through rocky caverns into the bowels of the earth, whence they are carried by subterraneous channels into other receptacles and basons.’ He travels for several miles over ‘fertile eminences and delightful shady forests.’ He is enchanted by a ‘view of a dark sublime grove;’ of the grand fountain he says that the ‘ebullition is astonishing and continual, though its greatest force of fury intermits’ (note the word ‘intermits’) ‘regularly for the space of thirty seconds of time: the ebullition is perpendicular upward, from a vast rugged orifice through a bed of rock throwing up small particles of white shells.’ He is informed by ‘a trader’ that when the Great Sink was forming there was heard ‘an inexpressible rushing noise like a mighty hurricane or thunderstorm,’ that ‘the earth was overflowed by torrents of water which came wave after wave rushing down, attended with a terrific noise and tremor of the earth,’ that the fountain ceased to flow and ‘sank into a huge bason of water;’ but, as he saw with his own eyes, ‘vast heaps of fragments of rock’ (Coleridge writes ‘huge fragments’), ‘white chalk, stones, and pebbles had been thrown up by the original outbursts and forced aside into the lateral valleys.’”

From these and from other like sources Coleridge’s mind was no doubt stored with suggestions of tropical wonder and loveliness, which fell together—if his own account of the making of the poem is to be relied on—into the kaleidoscopic beauty of “Kubla Khan.” It is not unlikely, too (cf. ll. 12-13), that the ash-tree dell at Stowey, which he had already used for a scene of supernatural terror in “Osorio,” bears some part in his avowed dream of Xanadu.

45, 3—*Alph, the sacred river.* This name seems to be of Coleridge’s own invention; at least it has not been pointed out where he found it.

16—*demon-lover.* The demon-lover (or more often, with sexes reversed, the fairy mistress) is a favorite theme of romance, taken from folk-lore, where it appears in many forms. Cf. the ballads of “Thomas Rymer,” “Tam Lin,” and “The Demon Lover,” in Child’s “English and Scottish Popular Ballads,” and Scott’s “William and Helen” (a translation of Burger’s “Lenore”).

46, 39, 41—*Abyssinian maid, Mount Abora.* See introductory note above.

53—*honey-dew.* A sweet sticky substance found on plants, deposited there by the aphis or plant-louse. It was supposed to be the food of fairies. Not improbably Coleridge was thinking of manna, a saccharine exudation found upon certain plants in the East. Mandeville describes it as found in “the Land of Job:” “This Manna is clept Bread of Angels. And it is a white Thing that is full sweet and right delicious, and more sweet than Honey or Sugar. And it Cometh of the Dew of Heaven that falleth upon the Herbs in that Country. And it congealeth and becometh all white and sweet. And Men put it in Medicines.”

53-4—*For he on honey-dew hath fed, And drunk the milk of Paradise.* Professor Cooper, in the article cited in the introductory note above, points out that this part of the poem contains perhaps reminiscences of the stories told of the Old Man of the Mountain. This was the title popularly given to the head of a fanatical sect of Mohammedans in Syria in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, whose method of getting rid of their enemies has given us the word assassin. To quote from Mandeville’s “Travels,” which has the essentials of the story, though the chief is here called Gatholonabes, and his domain is not in Syria but in the island Mistorak, “in the Lordship of Prester John:”

“He had a full fair Castle and a strong in a Mountain, so strong and so noble, that no Man could devise a fairer or a stronger. And he had made wall all the Mountain about with a strong Wall and a fair. And within those Walls he had the fairest Garden that any Man might behold….

“And he had also in that Place, the fairest Damsels that might be found, under the Age of fifteen Years, and the fairest young Striplings that Men might get, of that same Age. And they were all clothed in Cloths of Gold, full richly. And he said that those were Angels.

“And he had also made 3 Wells, fair and noble, and all environed with Stone of Jasper, and of Crystal, diapered with Gold, and set with precious Stones and great orient Pearls. And he had made a Conduit under the Earth, so that the 3 Wells, at his List, should run, one Milk, another Wine, and another Honey. And that Place he clept Paradise.

“And when that any good Knight, that was hardy and noble, came to see this Royalty, he would lead him into his Paradise, and show him these wonderful Things for his Sport, and the marvellous and delicious Song of divers Birds, and the fair Damsels, and the fair Wells of Milk, Wine and Honey, plenteously running. And he would make divers Instruments of Music to sound in an high Tower, so merrily, that it was Joy to hear; and no Man should see the Craft thereof. And those, he said, were Angels of God, and that Place was Paradise, that God had promised to his Friends, saying, ‘Dabo vobis Terram fluentem Lacte et Melle’ (‘I shall give thee a Land flowing with Milk and Honey’). And then would he make them to drink of certain Drink [hashish, a narcotic drug, whence their name of Assassins], whereof anon they should be drunk. And then would they think it greater Delight than they had before. And then would he say to them, that if they would die for him and for his Love, that after their Death they should come to his Paradise; and they should be of the Age of the Damsels, and they should play with them, and yet be Maidens. And after that should he put them in a yet fairer Paradise, where that they should see the God of Nature visibly, in His Majesty and in His Bliss. And then would he show them his Intent, and say to them, that if they would go slay such a Lord, or such a Man that was his Enemy or contrarious to his List, that they should not therefore dread to do it and to be slain themselves. For after their Death, he would put them in another Paradise, that was an 100-fold fairer than any of the tother; and there should they dwell with the most fairest Damsels that might be, and play with them ever-more.

“And thus went many divers lusty Pachelors to slay great Lords in divers Countries, that were his Enemies, and made themselves to be slain, in Hope to have that Paradise.”

And then there is this very insightful commentary:

Kubla Khan is a poem clearly meant to be spoken. So many early readers and critics found it literally incomprehensible that it became a commonly accepted idea that this poem is “composed of sound rather than sense.” Its sound is beautiful — as will be evident to anyone who reads it aloud.

The poem is certainly not devoid of meaning, however. It begins as a dream stimulated by Coleridge’s reading of Samuel Purchas’ 17th century travel book, Purchas his Pilgrimage, or Relations of the World and the Religions observed in all Ages and Places discovered, from the Creation unto the Present (London, 1617). The first stanza describes the summer palace built by Kublai Khan, the grandson of the Mongol warrior Genghis Khan and founder of the Yuan dynasty of Chinese emperors in the 13th century, at Xanadu (or Shangdu):

In Xanadu did Kubla Khan

A stately pleasure-dome decree

Xanadu, north of Beijing in inner Mongolia, was visited by Marco Polo in 1275 and after his account of his travels to the court of Kubla Khan, the word “Xanadu” became synonymous with foreign opulence and splendor.

Compounding the mythical quality of the place Coleridge is describing, the poem’s next lines name Xanadu as the place

Where Alph, the sacred river, ran

Through caverns measureless to man

This is likely a reference to the description of the River Alpheus in Description of Greece by the 2nd century geographer Pausanias (Thomas Taylor’s 1794 translation was in Coleridge’s library). According to Pausanias, the river rises up to the surface, then descends into the earth again and comes up elsewhere in fountains — clearly the source of the images in the second stanza of the poem:

And from this chasm, with ceaseless turmoil seething,

As if this earth in fast thick pants were breathing,

A mighty fountain momently was forced:

Amid whose swift half-intermitted burst

Huge fragments vaulted like rebounding hail,

Or chaffy grain beneath the thresher’s flail:

And ’mid these dancing rocks at once and ever

It flung up momently the sacred river.

But where the lines of the first stanza are measured and tranquil (in both sound and sense), this second stanza is agitated and extreme, like the movement of the rocks and the sacred river, marked with the urgency of exclamation points both at the beginning of the stanza and at its end:

And ’mid this tumult Kubla heard from far

Ancestral voices prophesying war!

The fantastical description becomes even more so in the third stanza:

It was a miracle of rare device,

A sunny pleasure-dome with caves of ice!

And then the fourth stanza makes a sudden turn, introducing the narrator’s “I” and turning from the description of the palace at Xanadu to something else the narrator has seen:

A damsel with a dulcimer (or a white sports car; see Bewitched In Asmara? posting)

In a vision once I saw:

It was an Abyssinian maid,

And on her dulcimer she played,

Singing of Mount Abora.

Some critics have suggested that Mount Abora is Coleridge’s name for Mount Amara, the mountain described by John Milton in Paradise Lost at the source of the Nile in Ethiopia (Abyssinia) — an African paradise of nature here set next to Kubla Khan’s created paradise at Xanadu. (EDITOR’S NOTE: Lake Tana in Ethiopia is the source of the Blue Nile, not Mount Amara, which lies northwest of Addis Ababa, according to one map. We lived in Asmara, on a mile-high mountain in the highlands [now part of Eritrea] which military personnel referred to for decades as the “Island In The Clouds.” Fitting. All of this stuff has to link up somehow, if only in my swimming head. Prester John or the Presbyter John figures into our hypothesis on the apostle John versus John Mark as the writer of the Gospel of John and Revelation.)

To this point “Kubla Khan” is all magnificent description and allusion, but as soon the poet actually manifests himself in the poem in the word “I” in the last stanza, he quickly turns from describing the objects in his vision to describing his own poetic endeavor:

Could I revive within me

Her symphony and song,

To such a deep delight ’twould win me,

That with music loud and long,

I would build that dome in air,

That sunny dome! those caves of ice!

This must be the place where Coleridge’s writing was interrupted; when he returned to write these lines, the poem turned out to be about itself, about the impossibility of embodying his fantastical vision. The poem becomes the pleasure-dome, the poet is identified with Kubla Khan — both are creators of Xanadu, and Coleridge is speaking of both poet and khan in the poem’s last lines:

And all should cry, Beware! Beware!

His flashing eyes, his floating hair!

Weave a circle round him thrice,

And close your eyes with holy dread,

For he on honey-dew hath fed,

And drunk the milk of Paradise.